Lung cancer or lung carcinoma occurs when there is malignant cell growth in the tissues of the lung. This growth can spread via local invasion into adjacent structures or through blood and lymph channels to other parts of the body. This is known as the process of metastasis. There are two main types of lung cancer: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Most cases of lung cancer are seen in patients who have smoked tobacco for a prolonged duration. 10 to 15 percent of cases occur in those who have never smoked. These cases may have occurred due to exposure to any form of air pollution along with genetic factors.
The diagnosis of lung cancer is confirmed through biopsy by bronchoscopy. It can also be seen on computed tomography scans or chest radiographs. The prognosis of lung cancer depends on the type of cancer, stage, and overall health of the patient. Treatment includes surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. In 2012, approximately 1.8 million individuals have lung cancer. It resulted in 1.6 million deaths. It is one of the commonest causes of cancer-related deaths in both men and women. In the United States, about 17.4 percent of individuals with lung cancer survive five years after diagnosis with lower outcome rates in developing countries.
Lung Cancer Symptom #1: Hemoptysis
Hemoptysis is a medical term that describes the coughing up of blood. Hemoptysis can occur in lung cancer, bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, injuries, and some cardiovascular conditions. In massive hemoptysis (300 ml or more), there is a risk of choking.
The treatment of hemoptysis depends on the underlying cause. It may include the use of iced saline, topical vasoconstrictors like vasopressin or adrenalin, endobronchial tamponade, selective bronchial intubation, laser photocoagulation, and many more.