A heart attack, or a myocardial infarction, is a condition where blood stops flowing to part of the heart, resulting in ischemia and heart muscle damage. A heart attack may lead to complications, such as heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and irregular heartbeat. Most cases of heart attack occur due to underlying coronary artery diseases. Some risk factors of heart attack include smoking, high blood pressure, obesity, lack of exercise, high cholesterol, excessive alcohol consumption, and poor diet.
Electrocardiograms, coronary angiography, and blood tests are some methods used to diagnose a heart attack. The treatment of a myocardial infarction is time-critical. Aspirin can be taken for immediate treatment. Other treatments include nitroglycerin, opioids, beta blockers, statins, supplemental oxygen, thrombolysis, and percutaneous coronary intervention. Heparin can be used to treat a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Individuals with multiple blockages may require a coronary artery bypass surgery. Lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise as well as long-term aspirin therapy may also help.
Approximately 30 percent of individuals experience atypical symptoms, which occur more often in women than in men. Among individuals seventy-five years of age or older, about 5 percent have little or no symptoms. In 2015, there were approximately 15.9 million cases of myocardial infarction around the world.
Heart Attack In Women Sign #1: Chest Pain
Chest pain is one of the commonest symptoms of a heart attack. Patients often describe it as tightness in the chest or a crushing or squeezing pressure.
The pain does not change with body position and can last for more than twenty minutes. One of the classic signs of a heart attack, known as Levine’s sign, is when someone clenches one or both fists over his or her sternum.