What Is a Frozen Shoulder?

2. Etiology

Despite not having a precise cause for frozen shoulder, several reported etiologic agents include surgery, diabetes, trauma, inflammatory disease, various shoulder maladies, and regional conditions. An autoimmune theory has also been proposed as patients with frozen shoulder have been found to have higher levels of C-reactive protein and HLA-B27 histocompatibility antigen. Another expert proposed muscular inactivity as a major cause. Frozen shoulder has also been associated with Parkinson’s disease, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, cervical spine disease, and ischemic heart disease. It has also been noted that the incidence of frozen shoulder is 5 to 9 times higher among neurosurgery patients who have had their shoulders immobilized for varying durations compared to the general population.

What Is a Frozen Shoulder?

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