Kidney failure or end-stage renal disease occurs when the kidneys no longer function. It can be generally categorized into acute and chronic kidney failure.
Acute failure develops rapidly and can be caused by urinary tract blockage, low blood pressure, side effects of medications, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and muscle breakdown. Diagnosis is based on factors such as increased serum creatinine and decreased production of urine. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. It is estimated to affect about 3 per 1,000 individuals annually in the United States. Acute kidney failure is usually reversible.
Chronic kidney failure is long term and can be caused by high blood pressure, diabetes, polycystic kidney disease, and nephrotic syndrome. Diagnosis is made based on the glomerular filtration rate or the requirement of renal replacement therapy. Treatment generally involves hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or a kidney transplant. It has been estimated by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) that about 1 in 10 Americans has some degree of chronic kidney disease. A systematic review has found a consistent estimated global chronic kidney disease prevalence of 11 to 13 percent.
Symptom #1: Nausea and Vomiting
Nausea refers to the unpleasant sensation where there is an urge to vomit. It can be a debilitating symptom as it places significant discomfort on the chest, back of the throat, and upper abdomen. Vomiting occurs when there is involuntary expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth and nose.
Both nausea and vomiting are common and nonspecific symptoms that have many causes. Examples include gastroenteritis, motion sickness, and pregnancy. Both symptoms may also occur in kidney failure patients due to the excessive buildup of urea in the body as the kidneys are no longer functioning enough to excrete urea.