The bone marrow is a tissue found within the cancellous or spongy portions of the bone. In mammals and birds, the bone marrow is the main site where hematopoiesis or new blood production happens. The bone marrow consists of hematopoietic cells, supportive stromal cells, and marrow adipose tissue. In humans, the bone marrow can mainly be found in the flat bones: ribs, sternum, vertebrae, and pelvic bones.
On average, the bone marrow accounts for 4 percent of total body mass. It is responsible for the production of about 500 billion blood cells a day. These new blood cells join the systemic circulation through the vasculature sinusoids that are permeable, located in the medullary cavity. Both the lymphoid and myeloid lineages of blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. However, the lymphoid cells will migrate to other organs such as the thymus to mature completely.
In severe diseases of the bone marrow such as leukemia, bone marrow transplants can be conducted as part of the treatment. There are several types of bone marrow cancer that are categorized depending on the type of cell affected. When it affects the plasma cells, it results in multiple myeloma. Leukemia refers to cancer of the white blood cells while lymphomas occur when it affects the lymphocytes. This article looks at 10 bone marrow cancer symptoms.
Symptom #1: Fatigue
Fatigue is a gradual feeling of tiredness that is often alleviated with rest. It can often be divided into physical or mental fatigue. In physical fatigue, it occurs when there is temporary inability of a muscle to maintain optimal performance while in mental fatigue, it occurs when there is transient decrease of maximal cognitive performance.
Fatigue can present as somnolence or lethargy. It is a common and nonspecific symptom often seen in various conditions such as dehydration, headaches, sleep deprivation, stress, and disease. It is also one of the common symptoms seen among patients with bone marrow cancer.