An ovarian cyst refers to a sac filled with fluid that is present in the ovary. While ovarian cysts are usually asymptomatic, they can also cause lower back pain, bloating, and lower abdominal pain. Ovarian cysts can lead to complications like torsion, rupture, and severe pain. Most ovarian cysts are usually related to ovulation and are known as functional cysts. The diagnosis of ovarian cysts can be achieved via pelvic examination, ultrasound, and other forms of testing.
Most ovarian cysts are benign, nevertheless, medical evaluation is mandatory to determine the cause of the cyst and to assess treatment options with the patients. Complications regarding this disease could be severe, so the sooner you get diagnosed by a professional, the better the prognosis.
Cause #1: Endometriosis
Endometriosis is a painful condition where the endometrium grows outside of the uterus. It most commonly involves the ovaries and fallopian tubes. In this condition, the displaced endometrial tissue continues to function as it normally would where it thickens and bleeds according to the menstrual cycle. Since the tissue has no way to exit the body, it becomes trapped.
When it involves the ovaries, it may result in the formation of cysts known as endometriomas causing the surrounding tissue to become irritated and causing the development of scar tissue and adhesions. Endometriosis can cause dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, excessive bleeding, infertility, dysuria, and pain during bowel movements.