Cancer is a term used to refer to a group of diseases where there is abnormal cell growth that can spread or invade other parts of the body. There are many types of cancers that can affect humans. Some of the possible signs and symptoms include a lump, unexplained weight loss, anemia, and loss of appetite. Different types of cancer tend to generate different symptoms. Some of the risk factors of cancer include tobacco use, poor diet, obesity, excessive alcohol use, lack of physical activity, exposure to environmental pollutants, history of certain infections, and exposure to ionizing radiation.
In 2018, it was estimated that there were 18 million cancer cases globally with 9.5 million cases among men and 8.5 million among women. Due to the growing burden, prevention is a significant challenge in the 21st century. This article will cover a brief introduction on 10 of the commonest cancers globally for both sexes. The ranking is taken from the World Cancer Research Fund by the American Institute for Cancer Research. Take note that the rankings may differ when it is divided based on gender.
1. Lung Cancer
Lung cancer, or lung carcinoma, is the commonest cancer with 2,093,876 cases diagnosed in 2018, representing 12.3% of all cancers. It occurs when there is uncontrolled cell growth in the lungs. It has the potential to spread to other parts of the body. It can be divided into small cell or non-small cell lung carcinoma. Patients with lung cancer generally experiences weight loss, chest pain, coughing, coughing up blood, and appetite loss. 85% of cases are due to long-term tobacco use. In the other 15%, it is due to a combination of environmental and genetic factors. It can be diagnosed using medical imaging such as computed tomography (CT) scans or chest x-ray. The diagnosis can be confirmed through a biopsy. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. However, most cases are not curable.